Furniture styles – historical overview
Whether you design your own projects or make them from plans, recognizing the elements that make up a particular style will enable you to improve your designs, select plans that incorporate known styles, or even modify existing plans to incorporate the elements of certain styles.
Even though styles and periods are usually defined by dates, furniture styles themselves don’t abruptly change. They evolve from one to another, with many overlapping characteristics. As a result, timelines should be taken as a reference only.
The distinct styles are generally determined by the physical appearance of the furniture, including design elements, joinery, and materials. These are typically influenced by economics, materials, tools, craftsmen, society, and other design trends of the day.
As an example, during the colonization of America, there was strong desire to bring their home country’s styles to their new home. This, combined with the realities of limited resources, resulted in the adaptation of the style to match the ability, materials, tools, and resources of the colonial craftsman. As a result, this period is defined as “Colonial”.
The well known Shaker style is actually defined by the Shaker society, guided by their beliefs. The following quote from the Millenial Laws of 1845 gives us a glimpse into the basis of the Shaker style:
“Fancy articles of any kind, or articles which are superfluously finished, trimmed or ornamented are not suitable…”
Styles were named after master cabinetmakers who combined utility with artistic style; Thomas Chippendale, George Hepplewhite, Thomas Sheraton, and Robert Adams.
The design characteristics of each style are unique, however they often blend into each other and may borrow from each other. This is particularly apparent when you look at styles from around the world in conjunction with the increasing trade and globalization of the last two centuries.
Fortunately, there are a number of commonly known styles prevalent in America that provide a wide array of design elements to suit almost everyone’s taste.
This is the first in a series of articles on Furniture Styles. Watch for future issues to learn about: Colonial, Chippendale, Shaker, Sheraton, Mission, and Victorian.
The dates given for styles and many periods are approximate, since they usually can’t be defined by specific dates. As a result, you will often see slightly different dates identified in different references.
Here are some typical timelines
1620 – 1780 Colonial
1780 – 1800 Federal
1820 – 1860 Shaker
1880 – 1900 Arts & Crafts
1900 – 1920 Mission
1920 – 1940 Art Deco
1949 – Modern
Periods and Styles
Periods and styles are not the same thing. Generally, periods are defined by events, or in the case of England, sometimes by the reign of their Monarchs.
Here is an example of two American periods and their related styles:
Jacobean 1620 – 1720
Queen Anne 1720 – 1750
Chippendale 1750 – 1780
Hepplewhite 1780 – 1800
Sheraton 1790 – 1810
Classical 1810 – 1820